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UPDATED. 2021-10-15 08:16 (금)

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[김용건의 음악 영어 칼럼] Liturgy - 전례
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[김용건의 음악 영어 칼럼] Liturgy - 전례
  • kim young kon 칼럼니스트
  • 승인 2021.01.26 11:22
  • 댓글 0
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mont-saint-michel-688405_1920
▲몽 생 미셸. 이곳에 예배당이 생긴 것은 8세기이며 현재 수도원으로 쓰이고 있다. mont-saint-michel(출처/픽사베이)

나는 기독교 예배 용어 ‘미사-missa’가 영어인 줄 알고 상당한 시간을 보냈다. 그런데 나중에 알고 보니 ‘missa’는 라틴어였고, 영어로는 미사를 ‘mass’라고 하였다. “덩어리, 모임, 다량, 일반 대중”등으로 알고 있던, 발음도 전혀 다른 영어 단어였다. 현재 미사는 주로 예배의식을 중요시하는 교회에서 사용되지만, 초기 기독교에서 나타나 정형화된 예배의식, 전례(典禮) -liturgy에서 음악이 가장 중요한 요소의 하나로 사용되기에 자세히 소개하고자 한다.

☞ 이 칼럼에서 타 종교와 비교하여 기독교-Christianity라 함은 구교와 개신교 전체를 통틀어 말한다. 예를 들어 로마 가톨릭(천주교), 동방정교, 성공회, 루터교, 개신교 등을 말한다.

이 전례, 예전은 일반적인 예배형식인 mass- 미사와, 수도원에서 주로 사용하는 office- 성무일과 라는 두 종류의 의식이 있으며 그를 살펴보면 다음과 같다.

Mass : 미사

먼저 라틴어 ‘missa’라는 말은 미사의 끝에 사제(priest)가 회중을 향하여 “Ite, missa est"라고 말하는데 이는 ‘가서 복음을 선포하라’라는 데서 유래하였다 한다. 성체의 제의라고 부르는 이 의식은 그리스도가 십자가에 달리기 전날 최후의 만찬(last supper)에서 유래한 의식이기도 하며 절기나 행사에 따라 많은 종류의 미사가 존재한다.

Mass Ordinary - 통상 미사

이는 일상적으로 반드시 드려지는 미사곡으로 5부분으로 구성되는데, 내용을 소개하면 다음과 같다.

• Kyrie eleison - ‘Lord have mercy upon us’ ☞ Kyrie 부분만 Greek로 되어 있다.

주여 자비를 베푸소서, ... 로 시작되는 ‘자비의 찬가’이며 누가복음 17:12에서 유래한다.

• Gloria - ‘Glory be to God on high,’

높이 계신 하나님께 영광, ...로 시작되는 ‘대영광송’으로 누가복음 2:14에서 유래한다.

• Credo - ‘I believe in one God,’

나는 믿습니다, ...로 시작되는 ‘신앙고백’으로 니케아신경- Nicaenum을 사용한다.

• Sanctus - ‘Holy Holy Holy’

거룩, 거륵, 거룩, ...로 시작되며 ‘거룩송’으로 이사야 6:3에서 근거하는 찬송이다.

• Agnus Dei - ‘Lamb of God’

신의 어린 양, ...로 시작되며 ‘신(천주)의 어린 양’으로 요한복음 1장 29절에서 유래한다.

▲from the 'Mass for Christmas 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▲from the 'Mass for Christmas Day'(출처/NORTON ANTHOLOGY OF WESTERN MUSIC)

Mass Proper - 고유미사

교회의 특별한 절기에 선택하여 드려지는 미사로서, 그 내용이 다양하다.

introitus, oratio, lecto, gradule, alleuia, evangelium, offertorium, secreta, preface, canon, commuio, post communio, benedicamus 등이다.

위 내용에서 밑줄 친 부분들이 노래 부분이고 나머지는 낭송 부분이다.

이와 같이 사제가 모든 말씀을 읽거나 낭송할 때 소미사-low mass라고 부르며, 사제와 성가대가 찬트와 다성음악으로 노래하는 것은 대미사-high mass라고 한다. 대미사의 일종인 축제용 Solemn mass-장엄미사가 있으며, 또한 Mass brief-단순 미사, Folk mass-민속 미사, 미사 통상문의 한 가지를 택하여 길고 변화 있게 작곡한 Mass movement 등이 있다.

Requiem Mass - 진혼미사

죽은 사람의 영혼을 위로하는 미사곡으로서 15세기경부터 나타났다.

그 내용은 대개 일반 미사와 동일하나 Gloria, Credo가 빠지고 'Dies irae-진노의 날'이 뒤따른다.

Divine Offices ; 성무일과

하루를 약 3시간씩 8번으로 나누어 드리는 주로 수도원(monastery)의 예배, 혹은 기도시간이다. Divine Offices 혹은 Canonical Hours-시과(時課)라고 부르는 것으로, A.D. 6세 기경에 St. Benedict의 칙령에 의해 8 순서로 시행되기 시작했다.

8 daily offices : Matins, Lauds, Prime(6a.m.), Terce(9 a.m.), Sext(noon), Nones(3 p.m.), Vespers, Compline(before retiring)

위에서 밑줄 친 3부분이 음악을 가장 많이 사용한다.

▲이 그림은 1157년경의 Cluny 수도원을 재건한 것으로 그 크기와 복잡함을 보여주고 있다.(출처/Richard H.Hoppin MEOIEVAL MUSIC)

• Matins(조과) - sometime after midnight

자정 후 해뜨기 전에 드리는 새벽 기도이다.

• Lauds(찬과) - at daybreak

해가 뜰 때에 부르는 아침기도이다.

• Vespers(만과) - early evening

해가 지는 저녁기도 시간으로서,

'Magnificat anima mea - 나의 영혼은 여호와를 영화롭게 합니다'가 주로 여러 성부의 다성음악으로 노래된다.

성무일과보다 좀 늦게 시작된 미사는 A.D. 4세기경에 시작되어 6세기경에 확립되고 11세기 초에 정착된 전례, 특히 미사는 오랜 시간을 통하여 기독교 신앙인들, 특별히 가톨릭교회의 중요한 예배의식으로 자리 잡게 되었다. 그와 더불어 1000년 이상의 시간을 통해 예배와 축제에 필요한 다양한 형태의 주옥같은 미사곡-mass music 들이 많은 작곡가들을 통해 쏟아져 나오게 되었으니 참으로 놀라운 역사이다.

이제 미사 음악의 진수(essence)를 느끼기 원하는 독자들을 위해 단성부-monophony와 다성부-polyphony로 된 몇 곡을 추천하면 다음과 같다.

단성음악 : Gregorian chant style, 'Mass for Christmas Day'

다성음악 : A capella style, 'Pope Marcellus Mass' - G. Palestrina (1525-1594)

Choir and Orchestra, 'Solemn Mass' - L. Beethoven (1770-1827)

진혼미사 : Choir and Orchestra, 'Requiem Mass' - Brahms (1833-1897)

이외에도 전례에서 다룰 많은 내용들이 있으나 생략하고, 다음 칼럼에는 기원후 중세음악(medieval music) 중에서 기독교 외의 음악, 즉 세속음악-secular music에 대해 소개하고자 한다.

“Glory be to God on high, in earth peace, goodwill towards men"

Luke 2:14 from Bible